Century is shown as "c"; i.e. 4c = 4th century A.D.
Late Roman Empire
4c Basilica-style church. Cathedral of Aquileia, Veneto, Italy. Dowley, 160
5c Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, 5th century, Brown, 105.
5c Ambrose, 5th century, Brown, 105.
5c Early crucifixion scene (early Christ with beard), 422, Dowley, 145. "One of the oldest known representations of the crucifixion. This wooden carving forms part of the doors of Santa Sabina, built in Rome 422-32. It is interesting that Christ is shown as bearded (earlier he was always shown as a clean-shaven youth) and that the cross itself is not represented."
5c Christian aristocrat, 428, McManners, 63. "Christian ruling elites carried on the secular traditions of their aristocratic forbears, their literary culture, artistic tastes, life-styles, and when required, consular munificence. And as this panel from the ivory diptych (428) of Consul Felix shows, their dress provided the model for Christian liturgical vestments."
5c Four gospels, mosaic, 5th century, Brown, 92.
Early Monasticism and Missionary activity
6c Iona Abbey. Woodbridge, 101
6c Iona Abbey Church. Woodbridge, 100
6c Iona shoreline. Woodbridge, 103
6c Cross at Iona. Woodbridge, 104
6c St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury. Woodbridge, 109
6c St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury. Woodbridge, 151
Eastern Roman Empire
6c Entry into Jerusalem, Rossano Gospels, 6th century, Barraclough, 40. "In manuscripts a similar conversion of the classical style was taking place. . . . Christ's entry into Jerusalem, from the Rossano Gospels. The four prophets underneath draw attention to texts which foretell or comment on the event."
6c Banquet scene from 6th century manuscript, Brown, 159. "Affluence: a banquet scene from a sixth-century manuscript, the Vienna Genesis."
6c Baptism of Christ, mosaic, Ravenna, Catholic, Barraclough, 44.
6c Baptism of Christ, mosaic, Ravenna, under Theodoric, Arian. Corbishley, 19
6c Clergy providing for the church, mosaic in basilica of Istria, Brown, 133. "A clerical dynasty. Typical of sixth-century western society: Euprasius, the bishop, built the church, the archdeacon Claudius provided the Gospels, and his son, the candles."
6c Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, exterior. Batterberry, 31
6c San Vitale exterior, Ravenna, 525-547, Hartt I, 311.
6c Justinian, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna. Batterberry, 33
6c Laying mosaics. Corbishley, 18.
6c Justinian, Ravenna. Burke, 30
6c Theodora, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna. Batterberry, 34
6c Apse mosaic, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna. Batterberry, 33. "Christ appears in the semidome of the apse as a youthful, short-haired, and beardless figure, robed as usual in West Christian art in imperial purple and gold, and enthroned upon the orb of the heavens. From the rocky ledges below him gush the four rivers of Paradise. On either side stands a white-robed angel; one presents Saint Vitalis, to whom the church is dedicated and who holds forth hands veiled by his gold embroidered cloak to receive from Christ a jeweled crown; the other angel introduces Bishop Ecclesius, woh commenced the construction of the church, of which he holds a charming if inaccurate model." - Hartt I, 313-14.
6c San Vitale interior, Ravenna, 525-547, Hartt I, 311.
6c San Vitale chancel, Ravenna, 525-547, Hartt I, 312. "What we witness in these mosaics is the transformation of a highly developed, naturalistic art into a transcendental and symbolic one, which still retains traces of the old Helleno-Roman illusionism in the treatment of light and surface." - Hartt I, 317.
6c St. Apollinaris, mosaic, St. Apollinare in Classe, mid 6th century, Barraclough, 41. "A wholly symbolic representation, executed in mosaic between 533 and 549 . . . The half dome is partly filled with a green pasture, at the bottom of which twelve sheep, symbolizing the Twelve Apostles, march in single file on either side of the orant [praying] Saint Apollinaris. Above him, against the gold background, a circle of jewels encloses a disk of blue sown with gold stars, on which floats a golden cross studded with gems, as if appearing to the saint in a vision. On either side of the disk Moses and Elijah, depicted to the waist only, are surrounded by clouds to show that they, too, are visionary apparitions, while below them among the trees three lambs look upward. These figures in the upper part of the apse symbolize the Transfiguration . . ." - Hartt I, 317.
6c Constantius IV grants Bishop Reparatus privileges. Mosaic from S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna. Color picture, Barraclough, 33. "The Emperor Constantius IV is granting privileges to the church of Ravenna. He and Bishop Reparatus are both haloed, to indicate superior status. On his left stands Constantius' brother Tiberius, while the scroll is received by a priest, his hand draped in token of respect.
6c S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. McManners, 79
6c Hagia Sophia, exterior. Batterberry, 29
6c Hagia Sophia, exterior. Hartt I, 319
6c Hagia Sophia cutaway, Bainton, I, 118 fig 30.
6c Hagia Sophia, interior. Hartt I, 318
6c Hagia Sophia interior, Willis, 247
6c Hagia Sophia interior, Willis, 280
6c St Simeon Stylites, 470, Hartt I, 297
6c St. Simeon Stylites on Pillar, 6th century, Brown, 99.
6c? Caves in Goreme, Cappadocia. Barraclough, 36. "Landscape in Cappadocia, formerly inhabited by monks living in caves . . . This solitary ideal soon led to loosely organized 'families' and then to a more formal monastic structure."
? St. Catherine's monastery, Sinai. Barraclough, 37.
6-7c Christ and St. Menas, Dowley, 185. (date is 6th or 7th century, says Brown, 103). "The Coptic church was developing its own distinctive traditions of art and worship. This icon from a Coptic monastery pictures Christ and St Menas. A Chi-rho has been drawn between their haloes."
6-8c Franks Casket. The three Magi bring gifts. (Bainton says this is 6th-century Anglo-Saxon.) Barraclough, 81
7c Lindisfarne monastery, exterior. Dowley, 232
7c-8c Lindisfarne Gospels, the evangelist Mark. Dowley, 233
7c-8c Lindisfarne Gospels. Fairbank, plate 7
7c-8c Lindisfarne Gospels. Dowley, 308
7c-8c Lindisfarne Gospels, color detail. Corbishley, 10
7c St. Paul's Church, Jarrow. Woodbridge, 112
7c Bede's chair, Jarrow. Woodbridge, 112
7c Jarrow uncials. Fairbank, plate 6
8c Bede's History. Fairbank, plate 8
8c Christ the Judge. Barraclough, 83. "Christ the Judge is commonly shown holding a bejewelled book, source of the Commandments and of God's Law."
8c Mass book illustrations of St. Boniface. McManners, 101. "Boniface -- his missionary work and martyrdom -- from a Fulda mass-book (early eleventh century). In the death scene, 754, the saint shields himself with his gospel book as his sole protection (as one of his biographers mentions)."
8c Gateway, Abbey of Lorsch, Hesse. Hartt I, 386
9c Book of Kells. Harttt I, 378. "Kells, Book of: illuminated gospel book . . . that is a masterpiece of the ornate Hiberno-Saxon style. It is probable that the illumination was begun in the late 8th century at the Irish monastery on the Scottish island of Iona and that after a Viking raid the book was taken to the monastery of Kells in County Meath, where it may have been completed in the early 9th century." - Britannica article, "Kells, Book of," Britannica CD, Version 98© 1994-1997. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
9c Book of Kells. Christian History 49, 31.
Holy Roman Empire
9c A baptismal document in Saxon and Latin. Barraclough, 97
8c-9c Pre-Carolingian contrasted with Carolingian handwriting. McManners, 102
9c Carolingian miniscules. Fairbank, plate 9
9c Carolingian script. Burke, 24
9c Enamel and gold cross. Corbishley, 21
9c Lindau Gospels. Hartt I, 393
10c Gregory the Great writing, ivory. Corbishley, 47
11c St. Martin's Church exterior, Canterbury. (Associated with Anselm.) Woodbridge 131.
11c St. Martin's Church interior, Canterbury. Woodbridge 129
10c Church of Gernrode, built during the time of the German emperor Otto I. McManners, 110
10c Church of St. Pantaleon, Cologne, built during Otto I's time. McManners, 113
12c? Monastery layout. Woodbridge, 144
11c Benedictional. Fairbank, plate 12
11c Conversion of two Frankish noblemen. Barraclough, 77
11-12c Pisa Cathedral (Romanesque). McManners, 207
11-12c Pisa Cathedral. Batterberry, 65
12c Durham Cathedral (Romanesque). Batterberry, 60
12c Durham Cathedral, interior. Batterberry, 60
12c Durham Cathedral interior. McManners, 195
12c Church of St. Magadalen of Vezelay (Romanesque). Batterberry, 54.
12c Church of Sainte-Foy, Last Judgment, exterior sculpture (Romanesque). Batterberry, 71.
12c Apse mosaics, Cathedral of Cefalu, Sicily. Hartt I, 339
11c French Romanesque sculpture of Christ and apostles. McManners, 108
11c Book cover, Romanesque. Batterberry, 88
11c Book cover, Romanesque. Batterberry, 88
12c Homilies. Fairbank, plate 14
12c Bible manuscript. Burke, 35
12c Carved cover of psalter. Barraclough, 125
12c Book cover, Romanesque. Batterberry, 88
12c King Edmund distributes alms to poor. Barraclough, 128
14c Francis receives the Pope's blessing (Giotto). McManners, 213.
13c Francis preaching to birds. Christian History 42, 20
13c St. Clare. Christian History 42, 33
13c Poor Clares singing. Christian History 30, 3
13c Cathedral building illustration. Christian History 49, 47.
12c Gothic: The abbey of St. Denis, interior. Batterberry, 96. "The foundations of the Gothic style were laid at Saint Denis with the incorporation of the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress."
12-15c Ribbed vaults at Meaux Cathedral. Batterberry, 97
13c Notre Dame Cathedral. Woodbridge, 171.
13c Notre Dame, Paris, exterior. Batterberry, 98
13c Notre Dame, exterior sculpture, last judgment. Batterberry, 104
13c Rose window of Notre Dame. Corbishley, 44
13c Cologne Cathedral. Woodbridge, 154
13c Cologne Cathedral, exterior. Dowley, 299. "The decoration of the cathedrals reflects the unified view of the world held in the Middle Ages. Religious subjects abound in the carvings and stained glass, but the world of nature is also well represented. So too is the world of what we would call 'secular humanity.' Kings and great nobles have their place, but so also do merchants, craftsmen and peasants. In the windows of Chartres cathedral, no less than forty-three trades of the city are represented, while at Wells there is a vivid carving of a person with a toothache! It was right that every class of society should be portrayed. All classes made their contribution to the building of the cathedrals. The accounts of the building of Milan cathedral record the lavish gifts of the duke, but also the donations of cheese, grain, poultry and animal-skins made by the citizens." - Dowley, 295-96.
13c Chartres Cathedral, exterior. Dowley, 297. "Theology was reflected in the structure of the building; the upward striving towards God; the cross-shape; and the altar situated in the East, facing Jerusalem. Every detail of the creed--from the Trinity to the creation, and from the passion of Christ to the Last Judgment--appeared in sculpture and stained glass. The harmony represented by such a structure signified the ideals of medieval art and thought. Suger of St. Denis kept an account of the work on his cathedral and when it was finished he described his reaction to it in the following manner: 'I seemed to find myself, as it were, in some strange part of the universe which was neither wholly of the baseness of the earth, nor wholly of the serenity of heaven, but by the grace of God I seemed lifted in a mystic manner from this lower towards that upper sphere'." - Dowley 298.
13c Chartres, exterior. Batterberry, 99
13c Chartres, exterior. Hartt I, 450
13c Chartres, doors. Hartt I, 451
13c Chartres, interior. Batterberry, 101
13c Chartres sculptures. Dowley, 298
13c Chartres, exterior sculpture, last judgment. Batterberry, 102
13c Chartres, reason + faith. Burke, 25
13c Chartres, rose window. Hartt 457
13c Chartres, Life of Christ scenes, stained glass. Corbishley, 45
13c Chartres, Masons, stonecutters and sculptors, stained glass. Batterberry, 111-112
13c Laon Cathedral, interior. Batterberry, 100.
13c Windows in the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris. Batterberry, 114
13c Windows, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris. Hartt I, 467
13c Wells Cathedral, exterior. Batterberry, 135
13c Wells Cathedral, interior. Batterberry, 133
13c Reims Cathedral, exterior. Hartt I, 460
13c Reims Cathedral, interior. Hartt I, 460
13c Death of the Virgin, Cathedral of Strasbourg. Hartt I, 475
13c Medieval town: Cordes, France. Corbishley, 5
13c University of Bologna, exterior of Palazzo. Corbishley, 40
13c? Law class, university of Bologna. Burke, 47
14c Nicholas of Lyra teaching at University of Paris. Corbishley, 40
14c Monk falls in procession during Black Death. Christian History 49, 36
14c Black Death. Bainton, 254/88
14c Burying the victims of the Black Death. Burke, 56
14c Judgment. Bainton, 254/89
Miscellaneous early Rennaissance
14c "Carols" for copying of manuscripts. Burke, 104
15c A copyist monk. Burke, 105
14c Gothic script. Fairbank, plate 16
14c Spectacles, 1st known illustration. Burke, 110
14c Arrest of Jesus, Giotto. Christian History 49, 31
14c Papal Indulgence form. Burke, 117
14c Papal palace at Avignon. McManners, 231
14c Cathedral of Milan. Hartt I, 489
14c St.-Etienne Cathedral, exterior, last judgement. Batterberry, 106
14c Wycliffe Bible. Dowley, 345
14c Wycliffe Bible. Bainton, 254/85a
14c Wycliffe Bible. Woodbridge, 176
15c John Hus at the stake, Constance. Woodbridge, 185
15c Burning of Hus. Ozment, 169
15c Consecration of Martin V. Ozment, 171
Northern Europe - a couple of pictures
15c Holy dying. Barraclough, 161
15c Ghent altarpiece. Christian History 49, 3
Late Handwriting and early printing
15c Cicero. Fairbank, plate 18
15c Propertius Elegies. Fairbank, plate 21
15c Gutenberg Bible. Pelikan, Reformation, 92
15c Fust & Schoeffer, Mainz Psalter (using Gutenberg type). Burke, 113
15c Fust & Schoeffer, Bible. Pelikan, Reformation, 94
16c Valla, De donatione Constantini. 1506. Pelikan, Reformation, 99
15c Jenson's typography (1475). Lawson, Anatomy of a Typeface, Boston: David R. Godine, 1990, p. 52.
15c Aldus Manutius, De Aetna by Bembo. Lawson, 76.
The High Renaissance
15c Florence Cathedral. Corbishley, 63
15c Dome of Florence Cathedral. Burke, 71
The Salvation Problem
16c Climbing to heaven on a ladder of Paternosters and Ave Marias. Barraclough, 164
Back to Church History page
Copyright © 1998, 1999 by Mark S. Ritchie. Permission is granted to use materials herein for the building up of the Christian Church. Bibliographic entries for published works quoted may be found in Bibliography page.